1. Industrial site characteristics and lighting requirements
1.1 Characteristics of industrial sites
(1) Visual conditions: including the accuracy of identifying objects (recognition size), the brightness contrast between details and the background, as well as the viewing distance, whether the object moves, etc., which are the main factors that determine the illuminance level.
(2) Place height: from 3m~4m to tens of meters high, different heights have an important impact on the selection of light sources, lamps and calculation of illuminance.
(3) Environmental conditions of the place: moisture, splashing water, dust, high temperature, low temperature, corrosive gas or steam, vibration, etc., which have a decisive impact on the protection level (IP code) and other protection requirements of the lamp.
(4) The production line and production equipment of the industrial site are relatively fixed, which is convenient to distinguish the working surface, the adjacent area of the operation and the non-working surface and the channel, and adopt different illuminance standards.
1.2 Requirements for lighting
According to the characteristics of different places, in China, generally in accordance with the provisions of GB 50034-2013 “Architectural Lighting Design Standards” (you generally install your author’s national relevant national standards to implement), reasonably select the illuminance level, meet the illumination uniformity, glare limit, light source color table and color rendering and other lighting quality requirements, correctly select light sources, lamps and electrical accessories, and improve the energy efficiency of the lighting system.
2. Implementation of LPD limit for lighting energy-saving machine
Saving energy and protecting the environment is a major policy in today’s world and China. Energy saving in lighting is an important part of this. The important reason for the “Architectural Lighting Design Standard” is to further improve the energy efficiency of the lighting system, reduce the LPD limit specified in the standard, and put forward higher requirements for the energy saving of architectural lighting (including industrial buildings) design, and if there are higher requirements in your country, it will be implemented in accordance with the requirements of the corresponding standard.
Industrial lighting designers should grasp the following points:
(1) The LPD limit specified in the standard is the minimum requirement, only the qualified value, not the optimization value, and the designer shall not use the LPD limit as the basis for the design illuminance, which completely violates the original intention of energy saving.
(2) The LPD limit is increased or decreased proportionally, which is used to increase or decrease the primary illuminance according to Article 4.1.2 and 4.1.3 of GB50034-2013; The design is to calculate the deviation of illuminance (within the allowable ± of 10%), and the LPD limit cannot be increased or decreased
(3)The utilization coefficient of a room with a very small area or high installation of lamps is very low, according to Article 6.3.14 of GB 50034-2012: when RI≤1, the LPD value can be increased, but not more than 20%.
(4) Distinguishing the different requirements of the working surface and the adjacent surroundings and the comparison degree of the background area (passage, non-operation area) is an effective measure to reduce the actual LPD value.
3. Application of straight tube fluorescent lamps
One of the important measures to ensure lighting quality and improve lighting energy efficiency is to reasonably select high-quality and efficient light sources. In industrial and civil building sites where the installation height is not too large (such as within 7m~8m), the most widely used light source is straight tube fluorescent lamp, which has the advantages of high quality, efficiency and affordability. Its selection should meet the following requirements:
3.1. Thin pipe diameter: pipe diameter is not more than 26mm, that is, T8 and T5.
3.2. Three primary colors: with rare earth three primary color phosphors, whose Ra>80, halogen powder lamps should be eliminated.
3.3.Long lamp: choose 4 feet (about 1.2m) long lamp, do not use 2 foot long lamp.
3.4.Medium color temperature: for industrial and civil buildings with medium illumination (300lx~750lx), medium color temperature should be used.
4. Technical requirements for LED lights in industrial and civil building applications
LED lamp has the advantages of fast starting point, excellent color grading performance, high light efficiency and long life, and is an energy-saving and environmentally friendly light source, which has great development prospects. But after all, it is still in the development stage, and there are many problems that are easy to solve. Such as poor color quality, glare, lighting supporting to be developed, power harmonics, power factor is still less taken into account, utilization coefficient and other calculation data are almost nothing, market products are uneven. Therefore, it is very necessary to put forward some technical requirements for LEDs, which will be conducive to the production of LED lamps and technical levels, conducive to improving lighting quality, and conducive to guiding designers to apply reasonably. The technical requirements are as follows:
(1)For long-term work and stays, the color rendering index (Ra) should not be less than 80.
(2)In the above places, the color table of LED lights should not be higher than 4000K.
(3)In the above places, the special color rendering index R9 (saturated red) of LED lamps should be greater than 0.
(4)The color tolerance of similar light sources in the same place should not be greater than 5 SDCM.
(5)The deviation between the chromaticity coordinates of the LED lamp and the initial value during the life period should not exceed 0.007 in the CIE1976 uniform chromaticity scale diagram, which can be called “color maintenance”.
(6)The chromaticity coordinates of LED lamps in different directions, and their weighted average deviation should not exceed 0.004 in the CIE1976 uniform chromaticity ruler, which can be called “spatial chromaticity consistency”.
(7)The “luminous flux maintenance rate” of LED lamps should meet the requirements of product standards, such as follows:
(a) LED downlights, according to GB/T29294-2012 regulations, claim that the luminous flux maintenance rate during the life should not be less than 70% (L70).
(b) Reflective self-ballast LED lamp, according to GB/T29294-2012: the life is 25000h, and the maintenance rate of 6000h is not less than 92%.
(c) Self-ballast LED lamp, according to GB/T24908-2010: the life of 25000h, the maintenance rate of 6000h is not less than 88%.
(d) Self-ballast LED lights, “American Energy Star” regulations: 70% at 25000h≥ 9≥1.8% at 6000h.
(8)LED lamp surface brightness is high, easy to cause glare and uncomfortable, should reduce the surface brightness(If not more than 100kcd/m2), lamps should limit glare, should be equipped with diffuse cover, otherwise there should be no less than 30 ° shading angle.
(9)The high harmonic content (especially the 3rd order) of LED lamps and driving power supplies should be limited, and the harmonic limit should be in line with the harmonic limit specified in Class C (lighting equipment) in GB 17625.1-2012, and special attention should be paid to the large harmonic of lamps of 25W and below, and measures should be taken.
(10) The power factor (λ) of the LED lamp input circuit should be improved: due to the excessive harmonics resulting in a decrease in λ, it cannot be compensated by capacitors, but the harmonic content should be reduced.
According to EU regulations: if the lamp power > 25W, λ>0.9 is required; The lamp power is 5W~25W, λ>0.5. This requirement is consistent with the λ calculated according to the harmonic value specified in GB 17625.1-2012.