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Application of LEDs in lighting design in industrial plants

LED linear trunking system LED light source can not only light up instantly but also its long life cycle, excellent environmental performance, so LED light source has become the most popular lighting source on the market today. If it can be applied in the lighting design of industrial plants, it will certainly improve the lighting quality to a certain extent. The factory covers a large area, low-power light source is not easy to meet the premise of power density to meet its lighting needs, so the plant’s electrical design is different from other construction sites, it is recommended to use high-power deep-light LED light source.

1. THE advantages of LED light sources in electrical design in industrial plants

1.1 Energy saving and environmental protection is high

LED light sources emit light that are similar to conventional metal halide lamps and consume only half as much power as fluorescent lamps under the same lighting conditions. After the Fukushima accident in Japan.The Japanese government is actively promoting LED lighting. It is estimated that LEDs with twice the light efficiency of fluorescent lamps will save 6 billion L of crude oil per year by replacing Japanese incandescent and fluorescent lamps. Fluorescent lamps with the same illumination, with power of more than 40W, have only 8W of power per LED light source. At present, LED technology is developing rapidly, and the light efficiency will gradually improve.

1.2 Long life response is fast

In industrial factories, it is difficult to install and maintain lamps. Choosing a long-life light source can save a lot of manpower and material resources. The theoretical life of LED light source reaches 100,000h. Generally speaking, the life of metal halide lamps is 8000 to 15000h, and the average life of high-pressure sodium lamps is 16000 to 30,000h. It is worth noting that the life of LED light source is different from that of the entire lamp, and there is no reliable data on the experiment and testing of LED lamps with a life of 30,000 to 50,000h. Many factors affect the life of led light sources. If high-power light sources are used, the operating environment of leds is more complex, so it is necessary to scientifically analyze and adjust the life of LEDs.

2 .Major factors affecting the life of led lights

2.1 IP rating of the package structure

Some rooms in industrial plants are damp and dusty, so the level of packaging for LED lamps has a lot to do with the life of the lamps. The quality of packaging materials, such as phosphors and resins, plays an important role. Manufacturers on the market today can produce lamps with the highest IP68 and drive power, so it is important to select the appropriate IP class for different rooms.

2.2 Thermality of LED luminaires

Most LEDs on the market are about 20% or less efficient to convert and generate a lot of heat. The increased temperature of the LED will reduce the luminous efficiency and worsen the lighting effect, color temperature deviation. The stability of the drive circuit is reduced, the packaging material is out of time, the life is shortened and the economy is reduced.

2.3 Luminous efficiency highlight color is good

LED lamp efficiency is higher, it can reach 110 to 1501m/W, is the light source of the rising star, and the luminous efficiency in recent years has been exponential growth. In the market, LED light source light efficiency has generally reached more than 1201m/W.

2.4 Strong safety performance

Due to the complex plant environment, there is a risk of explosion and fire. Therefore, lighting equipment must consider its safety performance. Toxic gases, such as mercury, are produced when metal halide lamps explode. Even if the luminaire is protected, there are still potential safety hazards, high non-safety voltages must be triggered when lit, and potential safety hazards exist. One is to affect the indoor temperature, and the other is that the temperature rises easily to cause fires. LED light sources have relatively low power and do not produce toxic gases, having been relatively safe compared to other types of light sources.

3. PROBLEMS with the application of LED light sources in industrial plants

3.1 Cost issues

Currently, LED light sources are generally more expensive than conventional light sources. It requires more complex optical, thermal, and drive designs. LED light sources with the same lighting design cost 3 to 4 times as much as high-pressure sodium lamps and metal halide lamps. Despite the energy and power savings, initial investment is high and overall economics are poor.

3.2 Thermal issues

At present, the technical level of manufacturers in the market is uneven, can not solve the problem of cooling, easy to cause light decay, resulting in reduced luminous efficiency.

3.3 Missing LED light source specifications and experimental data

Some light source parameters of high-power LED light sources have not yet been determined, such as color rendering, color temperature, etc., and there is no official measurement data. The current lighting specification does not take into account LED light sources, limiting the popularity of LED. When energy-efficient lamps first hit the market in the early 1990s, they cost 100 times as much as incandescent lamps, so consumers could not accept them. However, after 20 years of scientific research and promotion standards, it can be found that the development prospects of LED is unpredictable.

Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy announced plans to develop LED lighting, which has set out a number of development goals for the LED industry, one of the main goals of which is to reduce costs, improve luminous efficiency and reduce retail prices.It can be seen that the development of LED has entered the right track, China will inevitably actively promote the development of LED industry and technical research, and will formulate relevant standards as soon as possible to promote the development of LED industry.

4 .LED application in lighting design in industrial plants

4.1 Comparison of lighting source options for industrial plants

In the lighting design project of automobile plant, the original lighting design mainly uses 36W long tube fluorescent lamp, 18W short tube fluorescent lamp, 18W downlight and 250W conventional high-top lamp. LED lighting products are being used to replace existing lighting products to save energy and improve lighting quality. A comparative analysis of LED lighting and original lighting fixtures is shown in Table 1.

Performance metricsLEDT8fluorescent lampThree-color fluorescent lamp
Light source power(W)1436
Actual power consumption(W)1540
Operating voltage(V)85~26522
Line loss≤0.40.5
Power loss(3%)(W)0.63.5
Service Life(h)≥5000010000
Calorific valuelowhigh
Shock-proofHigh earthquake-proof, impact-resistantfriableness
Maintenance costslowhigh
StrobeNoYes
Start performanceVery well, no start-up device and time requiredDifficult to start at low temperatures and low pressures
Light decaysmallgreatly
Table 1 Table of performance indicator parameters compared to fluorescent lamps

Performance metricsLEDIndustrial and mining lampsMetal halogen lamp
Luminous efficiency(m/W)90~100170~1001
Color rendering index≥75About 65
Start-up timeinstantA few minutes
Use height (m)6~15≥8
The place of applicationFactories, warehouses, garages, etcOutdoor, high ceiling place
service life (h)≥300008000~12000
Power factor≥0.95About 0.8
Operating voltage (V)90~265200~240
ControllabilityCan be controlled at willCan’t control
Table 2 Table of performance indicators compared to metal halide lamps

4.2 Case study of LED lighting engineering in industrial plants

In the lighting design project of automobile plant, the original lighting design mainly uses 36W long tube fluorescent lamp, 18W short tube fluorescent lamp, 18W downlight and 250W conventional high-top lamp. LED lighting products are being used to replace existing lighting products to save energy and improve lighting quality. A comparative analysis of LED lighting and original lighting fixtures is shown in Table 3.

No.Original lighting fixturesLED lighting fixtures
1T8 1200mm 36W / T8 600mm 18WT8 600mm 9W LED Light Tube
218W Traditional downlights6″ 8W LED downlights
3250W Traditional high ceiling lights105W LED High ceiling lights
Table 3 A comparative analysis of LED lighting and original lighting fixtures

(1) Plant large space LED lighting design. The parameters of the large space of the plant are shown in Table 4. The space height is 9.600m, the installation height is 9.600m, the maintenance factor is 0.800, the working surface height is 0.750m, and the ratio is 1:3014.

(2)Factory auxiliary room LED lighting design.The parameters between the plant aids are shown in Table 5. The space height is 5.00m, the installation height is 4.00m, the maintenance factor is 0.80, the working surface height is 0.80m, the ratio is 1:253.

Surface typeP (%)Av illumination(Lx)Min illumination(Lx)Max illumination(Lx)Min illumination/Av illumination
working face2091082620.516
baseboard0207752570.361
ceiling301.980.715.910.359
wall(4)10733.19243

Table 4 Plant large space parameters

Surface typeP (%)Av illumination(Lx)Min illumination(Lx)Max illumination(Lx)Min illumination/Av illumination
working face2071142610.551
floor0189882440.465
ceiling30333.3225520.101
wall(4)1012143226

Table 5 Inter-factory parameters

(3)Project analysis. (1) Project operational analysis. After replacing the item with an LED light, it works well. Initial investment is higher than before, but the annual energy savings after operation are larger than before and maintenance costs are lower than before. The lighting has been improved and the visuals throughout the plant have been significantly improved.(2) Lighting indicator data analysis. The average life of the LED light source used in the project is approximately 10,000h, which is about 4 times that of fluorescent lamps. LED light sources are mercury-free and therefore do not pollute the environment during manufacturing, assembly, use, disposal and recycling.(3) Analysis of the project’s payback period. It has been estimated that the replacement LED scheme can recover the investment cost after the first year, and save a total of 623,000 yuan over 5 years. The project’s payback period analysis is shown in Table 6.

Scenario typeInitial investmentFirst-yearSecond-yearThird-yearFourth-yearFifth-year
Original Scenario43.274.7106.2137.7169.2200.7
LED scheme57.97490.1106.222.3138.4

Table 6 An analysis of the payback period for items

5.Concluding remarks

To sum up, the application of LED in industrial plant lighting is promising and will be widely promoted in the future. Based on its lighting effect, return on investment, and energy-saving advantages, LED lighting can reduce the pressure of electricity frequently cut off during peak periods, improve the lighting quality of industrial plant lighting, reduce energy consumption.

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